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農曆過年習俗(中英文對照)

Taiwan's New Year customs 臺灣的過年習俗  

 Taiwan and the mainland around the Spring Festival, also known as the Chinese New Year is the most lively folk festival of the longest.

臺灣和大陸內地一樣,春節,也叫過年,是民間最為熱鬧、時間最長的節日。

 Usually start from the Lunar December 16 year-end banquet, the Lantern Festival (Lantern Festival) on the 15th of the first month had finished, and considered all lasted exactly one month.

一般從農曆十二月十六日的“尾牙”開始,到正月十五日元宵節(上元節)過完,才算全部結束,歷時整整1個月。

 Year-end banquet. The first day of every month, 15 or the first two days, sixteen day to worship the Earth God God is a Taiwanese businessman, known as "do teeth. February 2 the original teeth, called "head tooth"; December 16 to do teeth last teeth so called end ". The approaching end of "the end" of the businesses year activities, but also ordinary people "Harbinger of Spring Festival activities. 

尾牙。每個月的初一、十五或者初二、十六,是臺灣商人祭拜土地公神的日子,稱為“做牙”。二月二日為最初的做牙,叫做“頭牙”;十二月十六日的做牙是最後一個做牙,所以叫“尾牙”。尾牙是商家一年活動的“尾聲”,也是普通百姓春節活動的“先聲”。

On this day, the Taiwan civilians to burn the earth god gold to sacrifice Fudezhengshen (ie, Earth God), also set a bench in front of for Gomi bowl, burning through clothing, silver paper, to worship the foundation main (for The foundation of a house of worship). 

這一天,臺灣一般平民百姓家要燒土地公金以祭福德正神(即土地公),還要在門前設長凳,供上五味碗,燒經衣、銀紙,以祭拜地基主(對房屋地基的崇拜)。

Line number, all businesses, but also in today's big banquet staff,  in order to reward the hard work of the past year.  Previously, if the boss is not ready to re-appoint the staff in the coming year, in the feasts aligned to be beheaded him, implied dismissal of meaning. However, this custom has disappeared. 

各商家行號也要在今天大肆宴請員工,以犒賞過去一年的辛勞。以前,如果老闆在來年不準備續聘的員工,便在筵席中以雞頭對準他,暗示解聘之意。不過,這種風俗已絕跡。

In addition to the year-end banquet dinner increasingly prevalent in recent years, according to the traditional customs, the family gathered around "food year-end banquet. The major food Yun cake and Yibao. Run cake based dampening pastry roll package bean sprouts, shredded bamboo shoots, beans, garlic, eggs, dry, tiger fur, peanut powder, fragrant tomato sauce and other foodstuffs. Yibao package food is pork belly, pickled vegetables, bamboo shoots, parsley, peanut powder, are delicious local food.

除了近年來日益盛行的尾牙聚餐外,按傳統習俗,全家人都圍聚在一起“食尾牙”。主要的食物是潤餅和刈包。潤餅係以潤餅皮卷包豆芽菜、筍絲、豆於、蒜頭、蛋燥、虎苔、花生粉、香茄醬等多種食料。刈包裏包的食物則是三層肉、鹹菜、筍幹、香菜、花生粉等,都是美味可口的鄉土食品。

Send-off. Lunar December 24 Send-off date, the the every household held Jizao activities, farewell to the Kitchen God and other gods of heaven.

送神。農曆十二月二十四日是送神日,家家戶戶舉行祭灶活動,歡送灶神及其他諸神上天。

The Vesta commonly known as the "Kitchen God", also called "the Siming zhenjun", "ZaoJun public", 'nursing home Tianzun ". "Stove king. Its full name is "East kitchen Siming Jiulingweikang $ VIEWS gods", was also known as the "Nine East main kitchen smoke. Early Taiwanese folk, every kitchen has a fairly large stove. " According to legend, stove Vesta year January 4 Jade Emperor sent to monitor the words and deeds of each one, until December 24 to report on his work, back to heaven to the Jade Emperor, the various good and evil merits and demerits of the report.

灶神俗稱“灶君”,也有叫“司命真君”、“灶君公”、“護宅天尊”。“灶王”等。其全稱是“東廚司命九靈元王定福神君”,因此也有人稱之為“九天東廚煙主”。早期臺灣民間,每家廚房都有一個相當大的“灶”。相傳灶有灶神,于每年的一月四日被玉皇大帝派來監視每一家的言行,直到十二月二十四日,回天庭向玉皇大帝述職,報告各家的善惡功過。


New Year's Eve: resigned years, to avoid the debt drama, fireplace, celebrating New Year's Eve. New Year's Eve, New Year's Eve, also known as one of the most important days of the New Year customs in Taiwan, the customs are quite a few. 

除夕:辭年、避債戲、圍爐、守歲等。除夕,也叫大年三十,是臺灣年俗中最重要的一個日子,習俗也相當多。


First resigned years, arranged "Hall head", that is, in the hall enshrined the "Guanyin mother and gods like ones printmaking and coupling.

先辭年,佈置“廳頭”,即在奉祀“觀音媽”和諸神像的大廳上,換新版畫和聯軸。


The afternoon of the resignation the Year ceremony. The five offerings, and a variety of cakes to worship gods Sheng located in the offering table, and then paying respects to ancestors the line Sanguijiukou gift, expressed his thanks to the gods to understand and ancestors bless this year, and pray for the New Year's blessing. 

到了下午舉行“辭年”儀式。在供桌上盛設五牲及各種年粿供奉諸神,然後拜祖先,行三跪九叩大禮,以表示感謝這一年來諸神明及祖先的保祐,並祈求新年更多的賜福。


God at the table but also for the spring rice "Sheng rice bowl, rice plug red paper flowers.Deities before the bowls, the bowl on the stove. These flowers also known as "Spring earners spend" or "rice Chunhua, this meal is called" New Year rice. (In Hokkien, "Spring" and "left" homonym, meaning that how to eat or not eat, there are remaining). 

神桌前還要供“春飯”,即盛有飯的小碗,飯上插上用紅紙做的花。神佛前各三碗,灶上一碗。這些花又叫“春仔花”或“飯春花”,這個飯叫“過年飯”。(在閩南語中,“春”與“剩”諧音,意思即怎麼吃也吃不完,還有剩餘)。


The desk also placed three piles of oranges and red dates. The jujube, said the mid-good. Oranges to the Lantern Festival in order to win, saying "Shangyuan close the eyes (night) demolition Kom shed."

桌前還擺放三堆橘子及一些紅棗。紅棗表示年年好。橘子到元宵才能拿下來,有句俗話“上元瞑(夜)拆柑棚。”


Finally, even burning gold paper, set off firecrackers, considered the end of the speech the annual ceremony.

最後,還要燒金紙、放爆竹,才算結束辭年儀式。


Avoid debt drama with dun lights, resigned years to avoid creditors to the House debt payment holiday activities. New Year's Eve, Taiwan temple ritual must be acting. 

避債戲與討債燈,是辭年時為躲避債主到府催債的節日活動。在除夕夜,臺灣各寺廟都要祭神演戲。


Unable to repay liabilities where the New Year, they went to the temple of the front of the stage, to hide in the crowd do the play. In accordance with the customs, the creditors can’t ask him to collect debts. Dun hard to avoid debt drama between the audience to find someone for money, it will create a scandal being hit to the masses, and knocked. This drama to present it through the night until the next morning, New Year's Day.

凡負債過年無法償還的人,便跑到寺廟的戲臺前,躲進人群中看戲。依照風俗,債主就不能問他討債。若討債者硬間至“避債戲”臺下找人要錢,就會引起公憤,遭至群眾圍毆,自討沒趣。這臺戲要通宵達旦地演下去,直到翌日淩晨大年初一。

 Liabilities also successfully after New Year.  However, creditors have ways to deal with that New Year's Day, wearing old clothes, the lantern to the government to collect debts, pretended own dunning catch are not yet home from a New Year's Eve night, the lantern also put in the hands can not be regarded as "New Year's debts, this lamp is called" debt collection lamp. However, unless deep grudges, creditors are generally not easily use "dun lights.

負債者也就順利地過完年。不過,債主也有辦法對付,即在大年初一,穿著舊衣服,提著燈籠到府討債,佯稱自己是從年三十晚上追債追到現在尚未回家,燈籠還提在手上,不能算是“新年討債”,這種燈就叫做“討債燈”。但是,除非積怨很深,債主一般不會輕易使用“討債燈”。

Fireplace the night of the New Year's Eve, also called the New Year night, go out to the family to make a living, have to rush back home to reunite If you can not rush back, it is necessary to vacate a seat to put the man's clothing, said reunion. The whole family together around the table to eat the most sumptuous dishes in the year, under the table and set a glowing oven, fireside set some coins to show warm as in spring, strong fiscal gas.

圍爐、除夕之夜,也叫過年夜,出外謀生的家人,都要趕回老家來團聚,如果無法趕回,就要空出一個位子放那人的衣物,表示團聚。全家一起圍著桌子吃一年之中最豐盛的菜肴,桌下置一火光熊熊的烘爐,爐邊置一些銅錢,以示溫暖如春,財氣旺盛。


Eat fireplace generally has a symbolic meaning. If you must eat "perennial vegetables" (Mustard to do, said longevity), homonym "leeks" ("leek" and "long", one a time to eat, eat the tail from scratch, not horizontal eat, do not bite the off Toshihisa to "long long").

圍爐時所吃的一般都有象徵意義。如一定要吃“長年菜”(芥菜做的,表示長壽)、“韭菜”(“韭”與“久”諧音,吃的時候要一根一根,從頭吃到尾,不橫吃,不咬斷,年壽才能“久久長長”)。

Also, eat radish (turnips), said good luck; eat a whole chicken, said the family portrait ("chicken" and "home" homonym); eat cockles "whichever reproduce prolifically meaning after eating cockles shell to be placed under the bed, said raw clam, cockles Sun; eat fish balls, shrimp balls, meatballs, take the meaning of the "ternary and (pill yuan homonym, ternary that is champion will solution million); eat all the dishes are without knife fine cooking should be based on the prototype.

此外,還要吃蘿蔔(即菜頭)表示好彩頭;吃“全雞”,表示全家福(“雞”與“家”諧音);吃“蚶”取其繁殖力強之意,吃完後蚶殼要放在床下,表示會生蚶子蚶孫;吃魚丸、蝦丸、肉丸,取“三元及第”之意,(丸與元諧音,三元即是狀元、會元、解元);吃所有的菜均不用刀切細,應以原形煮食。


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